Eldest son of Fëanor and Nerdanel, called The Tall.
Born in Valinor Time of Trees (No exact date given). Died in 587 First Age. While in Valinor, he made a great friendship with Fingon The Valiant,(eldest son of Fingolfin and Amarië), that lasted their entire lives.
After the banishment of Fëanor from Tirion, he went with his father to Formenos in the North. When Finwë was slained by Morgoth, Maedhros was the one who told the news to both Fëanor and Manwë.
Maedhros was the first son of Fëanor to take the oath of his father, and participated in the Kinslaying of Alqualondë. After reaching ME, he was the only son opposed to the burning of the Ships in Losgar.
He and his brothers rescued Fëanor after the battle of Nuin Giliath (Battle Under the Stars). Later he was captured by Morgoth and hung by his right wrist upon Thangorodrim. Fingon his friend, with the aid of Throndor (Thorondor) rescued him, by cutting his right wrist. It is said that he lived to wield his sword with left hand more deadly that his right had been.
Maedhros begged for forgiveness for the desertion of Araman and waived his claim to the kingship of the Ñoldor. Therefore, the House of Fëanor from that moment on has been called the Dispossessed.
Maedhros lead his brothers to East Beleriand, and he settled beyond Aros to the wide lands about the Hill of Himring. His chief citadel was was upon the Hill of Himring, the Ever-cold; and it was wide-shouldered, bare of trees, and flat upon its summit, surrounded by many lesser hills.
It is said indeed that Maedhros himself devised this plan, to lessen the chances of strife, and because he was very willing that the chief peril of assault should fall upon himself; and he remained for his part in friendship with the houses of Fingolfin and Finarfin, and would come among them at times for common counsel.
In the Fourth Battle:Dagor Bragollach, the Battle of Sudden Flame, Maedhros did deeds of Surpassing Valor and he held the great fortress upon the Hill of Himring, and many of the most valiant that remained, both of the people of Dorthonion and of the east marches, rallied there to Maedhros.
He was the artificer of the Union of Maedhros, which lead to the Nirnaeth Arnoediad (Battle of Unnumbered Tears). With high spirits, Maedhros created a Union to attack Angband openly. Unfortunately because of the Oath, he had less help than that he needed. He was betrayed by Ulfang the Accursed and the Flower of the Eldar withered. His friend Fingon was killed and the sons of Fëanor became wanderers in the wilderness.
Upon hearing of the Silmaril that Dior had, they assaulted Doriath in an effort to regain the Silmaril. In that battle Celegorm, Curufin and Caranthir were slain and they didn't regain the silmaril. This was called the Second Kinslaying of Elf vs Elf.
When Maedhros learned of the survival of Elwing and her keeping of the Silmaril, the brothers decided to attack the Havens in Sirion. And so there came to pass the last and cruellest of the slayings of Elf by Elf; and that was the third of the great wrongs achieved by the accursed oath. Unfortunately for Maedhros, he didn't regain the jewel and his brothers Amrod and Amras were slain.
After the War of Wrath, Maedhros and Maglor decided to regain the Silmarils held by the victorious host of Valinor, sent messages to Eonwë to yield the Silmarils, but when Eonwë answered that their right of them had become void. They slew the guards that kept them and were prepared to die but Eonwë would not permit the slaying of the sons of Fëanor and they left.
It is said that when Maedhros touched the Silmaril, he felt a pain unbearable and he cast himself to a chasm of fire, and thus ended the life of the Eldest son of Fëanor.
From the The Peoples of Middle-earth: The Shibboleth of Fëanor
His father's name was: Nelyafinwë: which means 'Finwë third' in succession.
His mother's name was: Maitimo: 'well-shaped one': he was of beautiful bodily form. But he and the youngest, inherited the rare red-brown hair of Nerdanel's kin. Her father had the epessë of rusco 'fox'. So Maitimo had as an epessë given by his brothers and other kin Russandol 'copper-top'.
According to the The Shaping of Middle-earth: Quenta:
According to this he inherited 'the rare red-brown hair of Nerdanel's kin'(Nerdanel was the wife of Fëanor,The Silmarillion p. 64),and was called 'by his brothers and other kin' Russandol 'copper-top'. He wore a copper circlet around his head.
Provided by Maedhros (Username on TTF)