Tolkiens Sources
(redirection from Tolkiens Sources)

Tolkien's Sources and Influences   
Old English Poems   
Norse and Germanic Mythology and Poems   
Ballads, Fairy Tales & Folklore   
Medieval Poems and Tales   
Celtic & Irish Myths   
Other Mythologies   
Analytical, Critical and Historical Works   
Late 19th Century & Contemporary Works   

Tolkien's Sources and Influences    

This compilation is based on JRR Tolkien-A Biography (by H. Carpenter), the The Letters of JRR Tolkien (by H. Carpenter), The History of Middle-earth (by J.R.R. Tolkien & C. Tolkien)) and T. Shippey's books The Road to Middle-earth and JRR Tolkien-Author of the Century.

Old English Poems    

  • Beowulf
  • The Ruin, The Wanderer and The Battle of Maldon
  • Maxims I and II
  • Solomon and Saturn II
  • Exodus
  • Finn and Hengest

Norse and Germanic Mythology and Poems    

  • The Poetic (or Older) Edda
  • The Prose (or Younger) Edda (of Snorri Sturluson)
  • Richard Wagner: Der Ring des Nibelungen
  • The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise

Ballads, Fairy Tales & Folklore    

  • Grimm's Fairy Tales (coll. by Jacob & Wilhelm Grimm)
  • Popular Tales from the Norse (coll. by P.C. Asbjörnsen & J.I: Moe, extant in various translations, the most popular probably by G.W. Dasent)
  • English Fairy Tales (by Joseph Jacobs)
  • Popular Tales of the Western Highlands (by J.F. Campbell)
  • The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (by F. J. Child)
  • Danmarks gamle Folkeviser (Svend Grundtvig et al.)
Tolkien most probably was also familiar with some American tales.

Medieval Poems and Tales    

  • Pearl, Sir Gawain and Sir Orfeo.
  • Ancrene Riwle (or Ancrene Wisse)
  • Brut (by Lazamon)
  • Mandeville's Travels
  • Lays of Marie de France

Celtic & Irish Myths    

  • Imram, The Voyage of Bran Son of Febal

Other Mythologies    

  • Kalevala; a finnish mythology
  • Old Testament, especially the Genesis.
  • Illiad & Odyssey

Analytical, Critical and Historical Works    

  • Tacitus' Germania
  • Jacob Grimm: Deutsche Mythologie (transl. By J.S. Stallybrass: Teutonic Mythology)
  • Lowry C. Wimberly: Folklore in the English and Scottish Ballads
  • R. W. Chambers: Widsith, A Study in Old English Heroic Legend
  • R. M. Wilson: The Lost Literature of Medieval England
  • Gibbon: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Saxo Grammaticus: History of the Danes
  • The Gothic History of Jordanes
  • Sir Charles Oman: A History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages

Late 19th Century & Contemporary Works    

  • George MacDonald:
    • The Princess and the Goblin,
    • The Princess and Curdie
    • Phantastes and
    • Lilith
  • William Morris:
    • The House of the Wolfings,
    • The Roots of the Mountains and
    • The Glittering Plain

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