(redirection from Anadûnë)

Kingdom of the Dúnedain, founded (SA32) on an island raised by the Valar as a reward for the support of the Edain in the War of the Jewels.

As a reward for their suffering in the cause against Morgoth. The Valar, The Guardians of the World, granted to the Edain a land to dwell in, removed from the dangers of Middle-earth. Most of them, therefore, set sail over the Sea, and guided by the Star of Eärendil came to the Isle of Elenna, westernmost of all Mortal lands. There they founded the realm of Númenor.
The Return of the King: Appendix A I(i)

In the first version of The Fall of Númenor (published in HoMeV, The Lost Road and Other Writings):

And a great land was made for them to dwell in, neither part of Middle-earth nor wholly separate from it. This was raised by Ossë out of the depths of Belegar, the Great Sea, and established by Aulë, and enriched by Yavanna. It was called Númenor, that is Westernesse, and Andúnië or the Sunsetland, and its chief city in the midmost of its western coasts was in the days of its might called Númar or Númenos; but after its fall it was named in legend Atalantë, the Ruin.
The Lost Road and Other Writings, p.14

In further comments on this version it is also very interesting to witness the variety of names the island and its chief city were given:

It was called by the Gods Andor, the Land of Gift, but by its own folk Vinya, the Young but when the men of that land spake of it to the men of Middle-earth they named it Númenor, that is Westernesse, for it lay west of all lands inhabited by mortals. Yet it was not in the true West, for there was the land of the Gods. The chief city of Númenor was in the midmost of its western coasts, and in the days of its might it was called Andúnië, because it faced the sunset; but after its fall it was named in the legends of those that fled from it Atalantë the Downfall.
The Lost Road and Other Writings, p. 19
Another name after used for Númenor was Mar-nu-Falmar?, The Land under the Waves.

The Published Silmarillion preserved unchanged most of the names of the island as given in the earlier versions of the tale.

And setting their course towards it the Edain came at last over leagues of sea and saw afar the land that was prepared for them, Andor, the Land of Gift, shimmering in a golden haze. Then they went up out of the sea and found a country fair and fruitful, and they were glad. And they called that land Elenna, which is Starwards; but also Anadûnë, which is Westernesse, Númenórë in the High Eldarin tongue.
The Silmarillion - Akallabêth

As for the chief city, in the Published Silmarillion we witness rather a historical change, for the chief city of Númenor is no longer Andúnië.

Of old the chief city and haven of Númenor was in the midst of its western coasts, and it was called Andúnië because it faced the sunset. But in the midst of the land was a mountain tall and steep, and it was named the Meneltarma, the Pillar of Heaven, and upon it was a high place that was hallowed to Eru Ilúvatar, and it was open and unroofed, and no other temple or fane was there in the land of the Númenóreans. At the feet of the mountain were built the tombs of the Kings, and hard by upon a hill was Armenelos, fairest of cities, and there stood the tower and the citadel that was raised by Elros son of Eärendil, whom the Valar appointed to be the first King of the Dúnedain.
The Silmarillion - Akallabêth

The Edain living on Númenor represented, over 3,000 years, the greatest heights and lowest depths possible of humanity. At their height, instructed by their Eldar mentors, they were a spectacular and flourishing civilization the equivalent of a "golden age" from our own history, but wiser and more humane. At their depths, seduced by Sauron, they were as corrupt as any slave-based empire from our own past.

And so, like the legend of Atlantis, and like the Great Flood and Noah's Ark, when their tyrant king "crossed the line", the Valar laid down their guardianship of Arda and called upon Eru, and the world was changed. It became a globe, with Aman no longer a part of it. And the Gift, Númenor, taken back beneath the waves.

In the language of the Númenoreans it is also called Anadûnë and Númenórë in Quenya, the High Eldarin tongue. After the fall of Númenor, it was called 'The Downfallen', Atalantë in Quenya and Akallabêth in Adûnaic.

The island of Númenor was shaped like a five-point star, with the central portion about 250 miles in diameter. The central point was called Mittalmar (Inlands), containing the cities of Rómenna and Armenelos and the Meneltarma. The five peninsulas were Forostar (Northlands), Andustar (Westlands, containing the Havens of Andúnië and Eldalondë?), Hyarnustar? (Southwestlands), Hyarrostar? (Southeastlands), and Orrostar? (Eastlands). The {Bay of Eldanna}? was found between the Andustar and Hyarnustar.

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